Microscopy Primer
Light and Color
Microscope Basics
Special Techniques
Digital Imaging
Confocal Microscopy
Live-Cell Imaging
Photomicrography
Microscopy Museum
Virtual Microscopy
Fluorescence
Web Resources
License Info
Image Use
Custom Photos
Partners
Site Info
Contact Us
Publications
Home

The Galleries:

Photo Gallery
Silicon Zoo
Pharmaceuticals
Chip Shots
Phytochemicals
DNA Gallery
Microscapes
Vitamins
Amino Acids
Birthstones
Religion Collection
Pesticides
BeerShots
Cocktail Collection
Screen Savers
Win Wallpaper
Mac Wallpaper
Movie Gallery

Phase Contrast Image Gallery

Cedar Apple Rust

Cedar apple rust (CAR) is a disease affecting apple trees in North America east of the Rocky Mountains. It is caused by the fungus Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianae and can defoliate trees and blemish fruit making them unmarketable. As evidenced by this micrograph, combining phase contrast microscopy with classical histological staining techniques often yields enhancement of cellular features.

The CAR fungus has a complex life cycle that requires two hosts, eastern red cedar trees and apple or crab apple trees. Throughout its two-year life cycle, the fungus produces three kinds of spores: aeciospores, teliospores, and basidiospores, each with a specific function. Spores produced on the apple trees do not infect other apple trees. Only the spores produced on cedar trees can infect apple trees. Likewise, only the spores from apples can infect cedar trees.

During the summer, infected apple trees produce aeciospores on the undersides of leaves and on fruits. These spores become airborne and infect cedar trees. Once they arrive on the host cedar, the spores germinate and become galls (small, round structures), protecting the fungus over the winter months. During spring rains in the second year after infection, a structure emerges from the gall that produces teliospores. The teliospores germinate and, within a matter of hours, produce basidiospores, the spore type that can infect apples. These are forcibly discharged into the air immediately after being formed and can be carried long distances until they land on a host apple tree, continuing the cycle.

BACK TO THE PHASE CONTRAST GALLERY

Questions or comments? Send us an email.
© 1998-2013 by Michael W. Davidson and The Florida State University. All Rights Reserved. No images, graphics, scripts, or applets may be reproduced or used in any manner without permission from the copyright holders. Use of this website means you agree to all of the Legal Terms and Conditions set forth by the owners.
This website is maintained by our
Graphics & Web Programming Team
in collaboration with Optical Microscopy at the
National High Magnetic Field Laboratory.
Last modification: Friday, Aug 01, 2003 at 11:43 AM
Access Count Since March 15, 2000: 22095
For more information on microscope manufacturers,
use the buttons below to navigate to their websites: