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Hoffman Modulation Contrast Image Gallery

Duck-billed Dinosaur
(Hadrosaur) Bone

The spectacular photomicrograph below illustrates mineral formation in Haversian canals of a fossilized Hadrosaur bone recovered in Canada. A combination of Hoffman modulation contrast and polarized light was used to capture the birefringence of the sample and render a three-dimensional effect to the image.

Hadrosaurs, often called duck-billed dinosaurs, belong to the order Ornithischia that lived during the late Cretaceous periods. These dinosaurs possessed wide, toothless beaks and mobile jaws with batteries of up to 1000 "cheek" teeth for cropping and chewing leaves. Over two dozen genera of Hadrosaurs have been classified, ranging in length from 12 to over 45 feet. Fossils from these animals have been uncovered in North America and Asia.

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