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Multiphoton Fluorescence Microscopy

Selected Literature References

A number of high-quality review articles on multiphoton fluorescence microscopy have been published by leading researchers in the field. This section contains periodical location information about these articles, as well as providing a listing of selected original research reports from this cutting-edge field of research.

Albota, M., Beljonne, D., Bredas, J., Ehrlich, J. E., Fu, J., Heikel, A. A., Hess, S. E., Kogej, T., Levin, M. D., Marder, S. R., McCord-Maughon, D., Perry, J. W., Rockel, H., Rumi, M., Subramaniam, G., Webb, W. W., Wu, X., and Xu, C., Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections., Science 281: 1653-1656 (1998).
| PubMed |

Albota, M. A., Xu, C., and Webb, W. W., Two-photon fluorescence excitation cross sections of biomolecular probes from 690-960 nm., Applied Optics 37: 7352-7356 (1998). | App Opt |

Amos, W. B., Multiphoton Imaging., in Current Protocols in Cytometry, Darzynkiewicz, Z. (ed.), John Wiley and Sons, New York, pages 2.9.1-2.9.11 (1998).
| Current Protocols |

Anceau, C., Brasselet, S., Zyss, J., and Gadenne, P., Local second harmonic generation enhancement on gold nanostructures probed by two-photon microscopy., Optics Letters 28: 713-715 (2003). | PubMed |

Andreoni, A., Cubeddu, R., De Silverstri, S., Laporta, P., and Svelto, O., Two-step laser activation of hematoporphyrin derivative., Chemical Physics Letters 88: 37-39 (1982). | Chem Phys Lett |

Andrews, D. L., A simple statistical treatment of multiphoton absorption., American Journal of Physics 53: 1001-1002 (1985). | Am J Physics |

Ashkin, A. and Dziedzik, J., Optical trapping and manipulation of viruses and bacteria., Science 235: 1517-1520 (1987). | PubMed |

Ashkin, A., Dziedzic, J., and Yamane, T., Optical trapping and manipulation of single cells using infrared laser beams., Nature 330: 769-771 (1987). | PubMed |

Axe, J. D., Two-photon processes in complex atoms., Physics Review 136: 42-45 (1964). | Phys Rev |

Barad, Y., Eizenber, H., Horowitz, M., and Silberberg, Y., Nonlinear scanning laser microscopy by third harmonic generation., Applied Physics Letters 70: 922-924 (1997). | App Phys Lett |

Beaurepaire, E., Oheim, M., and Mertz, J., Ultra-deep two-photon fluorescence excitation in turbid media., Optics Communications 188: 25-29 (2001). | Opt Comm |

Benham, G. S., Practical aspects of objective lens selection for confocal and multiphoton digital imaging techniques., in Cell Biological Applications of Confocal Microscopy, 2nd Edition, Methods in Cell Biology, Volume 70, Matsumoto, B. (ed.), Academic Press, New York, pages 247-301 (2002). | Amazon |

Benham, G. S. and Schwartz, S., Suitable microscope objectives for multiphoton digital imaging., Proceedings of SPIE 4620: 36-47 (2002). | SPIE |

Bennett, B., Jetton, T., Ying, G., Magnuson, M., and Piston, D., Quantitative subcellular imaging of glucose metabolism within intact pancreatic islets., Journal of Biological Chemistry 271: 3647-3651 (1996). | PubMed |

Benninger, R. K. P., Onfelt, B., Neil, M. A. A., Davis, D. M., and French, P. M. W., Fluorescence imaging of two-photon linear dichroism: Cholesterol depletion disrupts molecular orientation in cell membranes., Biophysical Journal 88: 609-622 (2005). | PubMed |

Berland, K., Detection of specific DNA sequences using dual-color two-photon fluorescence correlation spectroscopy., Journal of Biotechnology 108: 127-136 (2004). | PubMed |

Berland, K. and Shen, G., Excitation saturation in two-photon fluorescence correlation spectroscopy., Applied Optics 42: 5566-5576 (2003). | PubMed |

Berland, K. M., So, P. T. C., Chen, Y., Mantulin, W. W., and Gratton, E., Scanning two-photon fluctuation correlation spectroscopy: Particle counting measurements for detection of molecular aggregation., Biophysical Journal 71: 410-420 (1996).
| PubMed |

Berland, K. M., So, P. T. C., and Gratton, E., Two-photon fluorescence correlation spectroscopy: Method and application to the intracellular environment., Biophysical Journal 68: 694-701 (1995). | PubMed |

Berns, M. W., A possible two-photon effect in vitro using a focused laser beam., Biophysical Journal 16: 973-977 (1976). | PubMed |

Bestvater, F., Spiess, E., Stobrawa, G., Hacker, M., Feurer, T., Porwol, T., Berchner-Pfannschmidt, U., Wotzlaw, C., and Acker, H., Two-photon fluorescence absorption and emission spectra of dyes relevant for cell imaging., Journal of Microscopy 208: 108-115 (2002). | PubMed |

Bewersdorf, J. and Hell, S. W., Picosecond pulsed two-photon imaging with repetition rates 200 MHz and 400 MHz., Journal of Microscopy 191: 28-38 (1998).
| JOM |

Bewersdorf, J., Pick, R., and Hell, S., Multifocal multiphoton microscopy., Optics Letters 23: 655-657 (1998). | Opt Lett |

Bhawalkar, J. D., Kumar, N. D., Zhao, C. F., and Prasad, P. N., Two-photon photodynamic therapy., Journal of Clinical Laser Medicine and Surgery 15: 201-204 (1997). | PubMed |

Birge, R., Two-photon spectroscopy of protein-bound chromophores., Accounts of Chemical Research 19: 138 (1986). | Acc Chem Res |

Birge, R. and Pierce, B. M., A theoretical analysis of the two-photon properties of linear polyenes and the visual chromophores., Journal of Chemical Physics 70: 165-178 (1979). | J Chem Phys |

Blab, G. A., Lommerse, P. H. M., Cognet, L., Harms, G. S., and Schmidt, T., Two-photon excitation action cross-sections of the autofluorescent proteins., Chemical Physical Letters 350: 71-77 (2001). | Chem Phys Lett |

Blinova, K., Combs, C., Kellman, P., and Balaban, R. S., Fluctuation analysis of mitochondrial NADH fluorescence signals in confocal and two-photon microscopy images of living cardiac myocytes., Journal of Microscopy 213: 70-75 (2004). | JOM |

Boccacci, P. and Bertero, M., Image restoration methods: Basics and algorithms., in Confocal and Two-photon Microscopy: Foundations, Applications, and Advances, Diaspro, A. (ed.), Wiley-Liss, New York, pages 253-270 (2001). | Amazon |

Booth, M. J. and Hell, S. W., Continuous wave excitation two-photon fluorescence microscopy exemplified with the 647 nm ArKr laser line., Journal of Microscopy 190: 298-304 (1998). | PubMed |

Booth, M. J., Neil, M. A. A., and Wilson, T., New modal wave-front sensor: Application to adaptive confocal fluorescence microscopy and two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy., Journal of the Optical Society of America A 19: 2112-2120 (2002). | PubMed |

Brakenhoff, G. J., Muller, M., and Ghauharali, R. I., Analysis of efficiency of two-photon versus single-photon absorption of fluorescence generation in biological objects., Journal of Microscopy 183: 140-144 (1996). | PubMed |

Brown, E., Shear, J., Adams, S., Tsien, R., and Webb, W., Photolysis of caged calcium in femtoliter volumes using two-photon excitation., Biophysical Journal 76: 489-499 (1999). | PubMed |

Buist, A. H., Muller, M., Squier, J., and Brakenhoff, G. J., Real time two-photon absorption microscopy using multi point excitation., Journal of Microscopy 192: 217-226 (1998). | JOM |

Cahalan, M. D., Parker, I., Wei, S. H., and Miller, M. J., Two-photon tissue imaging: Seeing the immune system in a fresh light., Nature Reviews 2: 872-880 (2002).
| PubMed |

Callis, P. R., Two-photon-induced fluorescence., Annual Review of Physical Chemistry 48: 271-297 (1997). | PubMed |

Campagnola, P., Wei, M., Lewis, A., and Loew, L., High-resolution nonlinear optical imaging of live cells by second harmonic generation., Biophysical Journal 77: 3341-3351 (1999). | PubMed |

Cannone, F., Chirico, G., and Diaspro, A., Two-photon interactions at single fluorescent molecule level., Journal of Biomedical Optics 8: 391-395 (2003).
| PubMed |

Centonze, V., Introduction to multiphoton excitation imaging for the biological sciences., in Cell Biological Applications of Confocal Microscopy, 2nd Edition, Methods in Cell Biology, Volume 70, Matsumoto, B. (ed.), Academic Press, New York, pages 129-148 (2002). | Amazon |

Centonze, V. and White, J., Multiphoton excitation fluorescence microscopy., in Cells: A Laboratory Manual, Part 2, Light Microscopy and Cell Structure, Spector, D., Goldman, R., and Leinwand, L. (eds.), Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, New York, pages 97.1-97.17 (1998). | Amazon |

Centonze, V. and White, J., Multiphoton excitation provides optical sections from deeper within scattering specimens than confocal imaging., Biophysical Journal 75: 2015-2024 (1998). | PubMed |

Chen, Y., Muller, J. D., So, P. T. C., and Gratton, E., The photon counting histogram in fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy., Biophysical Journal 77: 553-567 (1997).
| PubMed |

Cheung, E. and Liu, J., Efficient generation of ultrashort, wavelength-tunable infrared pulses., Journal of the Optical Society of America 8: 1491 (1991). | JOSA |

Chirico, G., Bettati, S., Mozzarelli, A., Chen, Y., Muller, J. D., and Gratton, E., Molecular heterogeneity of O-acetylcerine sulfhydrylase by two-photon excited fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy., Biophysical Journal 80: 1973-1985 (2001).
| PubMed |

Chirico, G., Cannone, F., Baldini, G., and Diaspro, A., Two-photon thermal bleaching of single fluorescent molecules., Biophysical Journal 84: 588-598 (2003).
| PubMed |

Chirico, G., Cannone, F., Beretta, S., and Diaspro, A., Single molecule studies by means of the two-photon fluorescence distribution., Microscopy Research and Technique 55: 359-364 (2001). | PubMed |

Chirico, G., Cannone, F., and Diaspro, A., Single molecule photodynamics by means of one- and two-photon approach., Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics 36: 1682-1688 (2003). | PubMed |

Chirico, G., Cannone, G., Diaspro, A., Bologna, S., Pellegrini, V., Nifosi, R., and Beltram, F., Multiphoton switching dynamics of single green fluorescent proteins., Physical Review E: Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics 70: 030901 (2004).
| PubMed |

Chirico, G., Olivini, F., and Beretta, S., Fluorescence excitation volume in two-photon microscopy by autocorrelation spectroscopy and photon counting histogram., Applied Spectroscopy 54: 1084-1090 (2000). | Applied Spectroscopy |

Christie, R. H., Bacskai, B. J., Zipfel, W. R., Williams, R. M., Kajdasz, S. T., Webb, W. W., and Hyman, B. T., Growth arrest of individual senile plaques in a model of Alzheimer's disease observed by in vivo multiphoton microscopy., The Journal of Neuroscience 21: 858-864 (2001). | PubMed |

Coherent Laser Group, MPE Tutorial., in Multiphoton Excitation Microscopy, Coherent, Inc., Santa Clara, California, pages 1-19 (2000). | Coherent |

Corrie, J., Katayama, Y., Reid, G., and Anson, M., The development and application of photosensitive caged compounds to aid time-resolved structure determination of macromolecules., Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series A 340: 233 (1992). | Phil Trans R Soc A |

Cox, G. and Sheppard, C. J. R., Practical limits of resolution in confocal and non-linear microscopy., Microscopy Research and Technique 63: 18-22 (2004).
| PubMed |

Cunningham, M., Johnson, J., Giovanazzi, S., and Peak, M., Photosensitized production of superoxide anion by monochromatic (290-405 nm) ultraviolet irradiation of NADH and NADPH coenzymes., Photochemistry and Photobiology 42: 125-128 (1985). | PubMed |

Curley, P., Ferguson, A., White, J., and Amos, W., Application of a femtosecond self-sustaining mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser to the field of laser scanning confocal microscopy., Optical and Quantum Electronics 24: 851-859 (1992).
| Opt Quant Electron |

D'Alfonso, L., Chirico, G., Collini, M., Baldini, G., Diaspro, A., Ramoino, P., Abbotto, A., Beverina, L., and Pagani, G. A., New two-photon excitation chromophores for cellular imaging., Proceedings of SPIE 5139: 27-39 (2003). | SPIE |

Deguil, N., Mottay, E., Salin, F., Legros, P., and Choquet, D., Novel diode-pumped infrared tunable laser system for multi-photon microscopy., Microscopy Research and Technique 63: 23-26 (2004). | PubMed |

Denk, W., Principles of multiphoton-excitation fluorescence microscopy., in Imaging Neurons: A Laboratory Manual, Yuset, R., Lanni, F., and Konnerth, A. (eds.), Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, New York, pages 17.1-17.8 (1999). | Amazon |

Denk, W., Two-photon excitation in functional biological imaging., Journal of Biomedical Optics 1: 296-304 (1996). | J Biomed Opt |

Denk, W., Two-photon scanning photochemical microscopy: Mapping ligand-gated ion channel distributions., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 91: 6629-6633 (1994). | PubMed |

Denk, W., Delaney, K., Gelperin, A., Kleinfeld, D., Strowbridge, B., Tank, D., and Yuste, R., Anatomical and functional imaging of neurons using 2-photon laser scanning microscopy., Journal of Neuroscience Methods 54: 151-162 (1994). | PubMed |

Denk, W., Holt, J., Shepherd, G., and Corey, D., Calcium imaging of single stereocilia in hair cells: Localization of transduction channels at both ends of tip links., Neuron 15: 1311-1321 (1996). | PubMed |

Denk, W., Piston, D., and Webb, W., Two-photon molecular excitation in laser-scanning microscopy., in Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, Pawley, J. (ed.), Plenum Press, New York, pages 445-458 (1995).| Amazon |

Denk, W., Strickler, J., and Webb, W., Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy., Science 248: 73-76 (1990). | PubMed |

Denk, W., Sugimori, M., and Llinás, R., Two types of calcium response limited to single spines in cerebellar Purkinje cells., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 92: 8279-8282 (1995). | PubMed |

Denk, W. and Svoboda, K., Photon upmanship: Why multiphoton imaging is more than a gimmick., Neuron 18: 351-357 (1997). | PubMed |

Denk, W., Yuste, R., Svoboda, K., and Tank, D., Imaging calcium dynamics in dendritic spines., Current Opinion in Neurobiology 6: 372-378 (1995). | PubMed |

Despa, S., Kockskamper, J., Blatter, L. A., and Bers, D. M., Na/K pump-induced [Na](i) gradients in rat ventricular myocytes measured with two-photon microscopy., Biophysical Journal 87: 1360-1368 (2004). | PubMed |

Diaspro, A., Building a two-photon microscope using a laser scanning confocal architecture., in Methods in Cellular Imaging, Periasamy, A. (ed.), Oxford University Press, New York, pages 162-179 (2001). | Amazon |

Diaspro, A. (ed.), Confocal and Two-Photon Microscopy: Foundations, Applications, and Advances, Wiley-Liss, New York, 576 pages (2001). | Amazon |

Diaspro, A., Introduction to two-photon microscopy., Microscopy Research and Technique 47: 163-164 (1999). | PubMed |

Diaspro, A., Rapid dissemination of two-photon excitation microscopy prompts new applications., Microscopy Research and Technique 63: 1-2 (2004). | PubMed |

Diaspro, A. (guest editor), Two-photon excitation microscopy., IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology 18: 16-99 (1999). | IEEE |

Diaspro, A. (guest editor), Two-photon fluorescence excitation. A new potential perspective in flow cytometry., Minerva Biotecnologica 11: 87-92 (1998).
| Minerva Biotecnol |

Diaspro, A., Chirico, G., Federici, F., Cannone, F., and Beretta, S., Two-photon microscopy and spectroscopy based on a compact confocal laser scanning head., Journal of Biomedical Optics 6: 300-310 (2001). | J Biomed Opt |

Diaspro, A., Corosu, M., Ramoino, P., and Robello, M., Adapting a compact confocal microscope system to a two-photon excitation fluorescence imaging architecture., Microscopy Research and Technique 47: 196-205 (1999). | PubMed |

Diaspro, A., Federici, F., Viappiani, C., Krol, S., Pisciotta, M., Chirico, G., Cannone, F., and Gliozzi, A., Two-photon photolysis of 2-nitrobenzaldehyde monitored by fluorescent-labeled nanocapsules., Journal of Physical Chemistry B 107: 11008-11012 (2003). | J Phys Chem B |

Diaspro, A., Fronte, P., Raimondo, M., Fato, M., De Leo, G., Beltrame, F., Cannone, F., Chirico, G., and Ramoino, P., Functional imaging of living paramecium by means of confocal and two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy., Proceedings of SPIE 4622: 47-53 (2002). | SPIE |

Diaspro, A. and Robello, M., Two-photon excitation of fluorescence for three-dimensional optical imaging of biological structures., Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology 55: 1-8 (2000). | PubMed |

Dickinson, M. E., Simburger, E., Zimmermann, B., Waters, C. W., and Fraser, S. E., Multiphoton excitation spectra in biological samples., Journal of Biomedical Optics 8: 329-338 (2003). | J Biomed Opt |

Dittrich, P. S. and Schwille, P., Photobleaching and stabilization of fluorophores used for single-molecule analysis with one- and two-photon excitation., Applied Physics B 73: 829-837 (2001). | App Phys B |

Dittrich, P. S. and Schwille, P., Spatial two-photon fluorescence cross correlation spectroscopy for controlling molecular transport in microfluidic structures., Analytical Chemistry 74: 4472-4479 (2002). | PubMed |

Dixon, A., Two-photon fluorescence: A new dimension for microscopy., International Laboratory, 13-16 (July 1997). | Int Lab |

Drummond, D. R., Carter, N., and Cross, R. A., Multiphoton versus confocal high resolution z-sectioning of enhanced green fluorescent microtubules: Increased multiphoton photobleaching within the focal plane can be compensated using a Pockels cell and dual widefield detectors., Journal of Microscopy 206: 161-169 (2002). | PubMed |

Eggeling, C., Volkmer, A., and Seidel, C. A. M., Molecular photobleaching kinetics of rhodamine 6G by one- and two-photon induced confocal fluorescence microscopy., ChemPhysChem 6: 791-804 (2005). | ChemPhysChem |

Eng, J., Lynch, R., and Balaban, R., Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging of isolated cardiac myocytes., Biophysical Journal 55: 621-629 (1989). | PubMed |

Esposito, A., Federici, F., Usai, C., Cannone, F., Chirico, G., Collini, M., and Diaspro, A., Notes on theory and experimental conditions behind two-photon excitation microscopy., Microscopy Research and Technique 63: 12-17 (2004). | PubMed |

Fan, G., Fujisaki, H., Miyawaki, A., Tsay, R., Tsien, R., and Ellisman, M., Video-rate scanning two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy and ratio imaging with cameleons., Biophysical Journal 76: 2412-2420 (1999). | PubMed |

Feijo, J. A. and Moreno, N., Imaging plant cells by two-photon excitation., Protoplasma 223: 1-32 (2004). | PubMed |

Fisher, W. G., Partridge, W. P., Dees, C., and Wachter, E. A., Simultaneous two-photon activation of type-I photodynamic therapy agents., Photochemistry and Photobiology 66: 141-155 (1997). | PubMed |

Fisher, W. G., Watcher, E. A., Armas, M., and Seaton, C., Titanium:sapphire laser as an excitation source in two-photon spectroscopy., Applied Spectroscopy 51: 218-226 (1997). | App Spec |

Freeman, R., Gilliland, D., and Lytle, F., Second harmonic detection of sinusoidally modulated two-photon excited fluorescence., Analytical Chemistry 62: 2216-2219 (1990). | Anal Chem |

French, T., So, P. T. C., Weaver, D. J., Coelho-Sampaio, T., and Gratton, E., Two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy of macrophage-mediated antigen processing., Journal of Microscopy 185: 339-353 (1997). | PubMed |

Friedrich, D., Two-photon molecular spectroscopy., Journal of Chemical Education 59: 472 (1982). | J Chem Educ |

Friedrich, D. and McClain, W., Two-photon molecular electronic spectroscopy., Annual Review of Physical Chemistry 31: 559 (1980). | Annu Rev Phys Chem |

Fu, Q., Mak, G., and van Driel, H., High-power, 62-fs infrared optical parametric oscillator synchronously pumped by a 76-MHz Ti:sapphire laser., Optics Letters 17: 1006 (1992). | Opt Lett |

Furuta, T., Wang, S., Dantzker, J., Dore, T., Bybee, W., Callaway, E., Denk, W., and Tsien, R., Brominated 7-hydroxycoumarin-4-ylmethyls: Photolabile protecting groups with biologically useful cross-sections for two-photon photolysis., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 96: 1193-1200 (1999). | PubMed |

Gauderon, R., Lukins, P. B., and Sheppard, C. J. R., Effect of a confocal pinhole in two-photon microscopy., Microscopy Research and Technique 47: 210-214 (1999).
| PubMed |

Gaus, K., Gratton, E., Kable, E. P. W., Jones, A. S., Gelissen, I., Kritharides, L., and Jessup, W., Visualizing lipid structure and raft domains in living cells with two-photon microscopy., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 100: 15554-15559 (2003). | PubMed |

Girkin, J. M., Optical physics enables advances in multiphoton imaging., Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics 36: R250-R258 (2003). | J Phys D App Phys |

Girkin, J. M. and Wokosin, D., Novel compact sources for multiphoton microscopy., Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging 2: 186-191 (2001).
| Prog Biomed Opt and Imag |

Girkin, J. M. and Wokosin, D., Practical multi-photon microscopy., in Confocal and Two-photon Microscopy: Foundations, Applications, and Advances, Diaspro, A. (ed.), Wiley-Liss, Inc., New York, pages 207-236 (2001). | Amazon |

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Gratton, E., Barry, N. P., Beretta, S., and Celli, A., Multiphoton fluorescence microscopy., Methods 25: 103-110 (2001). | PubMed |

Gratton, E., Breusegem, S., Sutin, J., Ruan, Q., and Barry, N., Fluorescence lifetime imaging for the two-photon microscope: Time-domain and frequency-domain methods., Journal of Biomedical Optics 8: 381-390 (2003). | PubMed |

Greulich, K. and Weber, G., The light microscope on its way from an analytical to a preparative tool., Journal of Microscopy 167: 127-151 (1992). | JOM |

Gu, M., Resolution in three-photon fluorescence scanning microscopy., Optics Letters 21: 988-990 (1996). | Opt Lett |

Gu, M. and Day, D., Two-photon multilayer bit data storage by use of continuous wave illumination., Proceedings of SPIE 3749: 444-445 (1999). | SPIE |

Gu, M. and Sheppard, C. J. R., Comparison of three-dimensional imaging properties between two-photon and single-photon fluorescence microscopy., Journal of Microscopy 177: 128-137 (1995). | JOM |

Gu, M. and Sheppard, C. J. R., Effects of finite-sized detector on the OTF of confocal fluorescent microscopy., Optik 89: 65-69 (1991). | Optik |

Gulot, E., Georges, P., Brun, A., Fontaine-Aupart, M. P., Bellon-Fontaine, M. N., and Briandet, R., Heterogeneity of diffusion inside microbial biofilms determined by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy under two-photon excitation., Photochemistry and Photobiology 75: 570-578 (2002). | PubMed |

Gurney, A. and Lester, H., Light-flash physiology with synthetic photosensitive compounds., Physiological Reviews 67: 583-617 (1987). | PubMed |

Hänninen, P. E. and Hell, S. W., Femtosecond pulse broadening in the focal region of a two-photon fluorescence microscope., Bioimaging 2: 117-121 (1994).
| Bioimaging |

Hänninen, P. E., Schrader, M., Soini, E., and Hell, S. W., Two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy using a semiconductor laser., Bioimaging 3: 70-75 (1995). | Bioimaging |

Hänninen, P. E., Soini, E., and Hell, S. W., Continuous wave excitation two-photon fluorescence microscopy., Journal of Microscopy 176: 222-225 (1994). | JOM |

Hanson, G. T., McAnaney, T. B., Park, E. S., Rendell, M. E. P., Yarbrough, D. K., Chu, S., Xi, L., Boxer, S. G., Montrose, M. H., and Remington, S. J., Green fluorescent protein variants as ratiometric dual emission pH sensors. Structural characterization and preliminary application., Biochemistry 41: 15477-15488 (2002). | PubMed |

Heikal, A. A., Hess, S. T., and Webb, W. W., Multiphoton molecular spectroscopy and excited-state dynamics of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP): Acid-base specificity., Chemical Physics 274: 37-55 (2001). | Chem Phys |

Heinze, K. G., Koltermann, A., and Schwille, P., Simultaneous two-photon excitation of distinct labels for dual-color fluorescence cross-correlation analysis., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 97: 10377-10382 (2000).
| PubMed |

Hell, S. W. and Anderson, V., Space-multiplexed multifocal nonlinear microscopy., Journal of Microscopy 202: 457-463 (2001). | PubMed |

Hell, S. W., Bahlmann, K., Schrader, M., Soini, A., Malak, H. M., Gryczynski, I., and Lakowicz, J. R., Three-photon excitation in fluorescence microscopy., Journal of Biomedical Optics 1: 71-74 (1996). | J Biomed Opt |

Hell, S. W., Booth, M., Wilms, S., Schnetter, C. M., Kirsch, A., Arndt-Jovin, D. J., and Jovin, T. M., Two-photon near and far-field fluorescence microscopy with continuous-wave excitation., Optics Letters 23: 1238-1240 (1998). | Opt Lett |

Hell, S. W. and Stelzer, E., Fundamental improvement of resolution with a 4Pi-confocal fluorescence microscope using two-photon excitation., Optics Communications 93: 277-282 (1992). | Opt Comm |

Hellwarth, R. and Christiansen, P., Nonlinear optical microscopic examination of structure in polycrystalline ZnSe., Optics Communications 12: 318-322 (1974).
| Opt Comm |

Helmchen, F. and Denk, W., Deep tissue two-photon microscopy., Nature Methods 2: 932-940 (2005). | PubMed |

Helmchen, F. and Denk, W., New developments in multiphoton microscopy., Current Opinion in Neurobiology 12: 593-601 (2001). | PubMed |

Hopt, A. and Neher, E., Highly nonlinear photodamage in two-photon fluorescence microscopy., Biophysical Journal 80: 2029-2036 (2001). | PubMed |

Huang, S., Heikal, A. A., and Webb, W. W., Two-photon fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy of NAD(P)H and flavoprotein., Biophysical Journal 82: 2811-2825 (2002). | PubMed |

Imanishi, Y., Batten, M. L., Piston, D. W., Baehr, W., and Palczewski, K., Noninvasive two-photon imaging reveals retinyl ester storage structures in the eye., Journal of Cell Biology 164: 373-383 (2004). | PubMed |

Jenei, A., Kirsch, A., Subramaniam, V., Arndt-Jovin, D., and Jovin, T., Picosecond multiphoton scanning near-field optical microscopy., Biophysical Journal 76: 1092-1100 (1999). | PubMed |

Jonkman, J. and Stelzer, E., Resolution and contrast in confocal and two-photon microscopy., in Confocal and Two-photon Microscopy: Foundations, Applications, and Advances, Diaspro, A. (ed.), Wiley-Liss, Inc., New York, pages 101-126 (2001).
| Amazon |

Jung, J. C. and Schnitzer, M. J., Multiphoton endoscopy., Optics Letters 28: 902-904 (2003). | PubMed |

Kaiser, W. and Garrett, C. G. B., Two-photon excitation in CaF2:Eu2+., Physical Review Letters 7: 229-231 (1961). | Phys Rev Lett |

Kennedy, J., Pottier, R., and Pross, D., Photodynamic therapy with endogenous protoporphyrin IX: Basic principles and present clinical experience., Photochemistry and Photobiology B 6: 143-148 (1990). | PubMed |

Kennedy, S. and Lytle, F., p-Bis-(o-methylstyryl)benzene as a power-squared sensor for two-photon absorption measurements between 537 nanometers and 694 nanometers., Analytical Chemistry 58: 2643-2647 (1986). | Anal Chem |

Kim, S. A., Heinze, K. G., Bacia, K., Waxham, M. N., and Schwille, P., Two-photon cross-correlation analysis of intracellular reactions with variable stoichiometry., Biophysical Journal 88: 4319-4336 (2005). | PubMed |

Kirkpatrick, S. M., Naik, R. R., and Stone, M. O., Nonlinear saturation and determination of the two-photon absorption cross section of green fluorescent protein., Journal of Physical Chemistry 105: 2867-2873 (2001). | J Phys Chem |

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