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Differential Interference Contrast

Selected Literature References

A number of review articles on differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy have been published by leading researchers in the field and were utilized as references to prepare discussions included in the Molecular Expressions Microscopy Primer. This section contains periodical location information about these articles, as well as providing a listing of selected original research reports and books describing specimen contrast and the classical techniques of differential interference contrast light microscopy.

Review Articles

Optical microscopy., Davidson, M. and Abramowitz, M. in Encyclopedia of Imaging Science and Technology, Hornak, J. (ed), Wiley-Interscience, New York, pages 1106-1141 (2002).

Differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy and modulation contrast microscopy., Murphy, D. in Fundamentals of Light Microscopy and Digital Imaging, Wiley-Liss, New York, pages 153-168 (2001).

Differential interference-contrast (DIC) microscopy., Rost, F. and Oldfield, R. in Photography with a Microscope, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, pages 136-140 (2000).

Microscopy and microscope optical systems., Lanni, F. and Keller, E. in Imaging Neurons: A Laboratory Manual, Yuste, R., Lanni, F., and Konnerth, A. (eds), Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, New York, pages 1.30-1.37 (2000).

Differential interference contrast., Ruzin, S. in Plant Microtechnique and Microscopy, Oxford University Press, New York, pages 20-23 (1999).

Interference contrast., Goldstein, D. in Understanding the Light Microscope: A Computer-Aided Introduction, Academic Press, New York, pages 61-70 (1999).

Birefringence., Hecht, E. in Optics, Addison-Wesley, New York, pages 331-340 (1998).

High-resolution video-enhanced differential interference contrast (VE-DIC) light microscope., Salmon, E. and Tran, P. in Video Microscopy, Sluder, G. and Wolf, D. (eds), Academic Press, New York, pages 153-184 (1998).

Light microscopy., Keller, E. in Cells: A Laboratory Manual, Vol. 2, Light Microscopy and Cell Structure, Spector, D., Goldman, R., and Leinwand, L. (eds), Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, New York, pages 94.34-94.37 (1998).

Interference., Inoué, S. and Spring, K. in Video Microscopy: The Fundamentals, Plenum Press, New York, pages 86-91 (1997).

Nomarski/DIC (Differential interference contrast)., Foster, B. in Optimizing Light Microscopy for Biological and Clinical Laboratories, Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, Dubuque, Iowa, pages 89-92 (1997).

Interference contrast., Bradbury, S. and Evennett, P. in Contrast Techniques in Light Microscopy, BIOS Scientific Publishers, Herndon, Virginia, pages 77-90 (1996).

Interference., Inoué, S. and Oldenbourg, R. in Handbook of Optics II: Devices, Measurements & Properties, Second Edition, Bass, M. (chief ed), McGraw-Hill, New York, pages 17.32-17.34 (1995).

Differential interference contrast (DIC)., Polaroid Technical Assistance in Photomicrography: Instant Photography Through the Microscope, Polaroid Corporation, Cambridge, Massachusetts, pages 60-62 (1995).

Differential interference contrast microscopy., Oldfield, R. in Light Microscopy: An Illustrated Guide, Wolfe Publishing, Aylesbury, England, pages 129-138 (1994).

Image formation in video-enhanced and confocal DIC microscopy., Sheppard, C. and Cogswell, C. in Phase Contrast and Differential Interference Contrast Imaging Techniques and Applications, SPIE Proceedings 1846, International Society for Optical Engineering, pages 64-71 (1994).

Interference microscopy., Rochow, T. and Tucker, P. in Introduction to Microscopy by Means of Light, Electrons, X Rays, or Acoustics, Plenum Press, New York, pages 221-231 (1994).

Nomarski's DIC microscopy: a review., Pluta, M. in Phase Contrast and Differential Interference Contrast Imaging Techniques and Applications, SPIE Proceedings 1846, International Society for Optical Engineering, pages 10-25 (1994).

Variable DIC system for anisotropic and sub-micron objects., Pluta, M. in Phase Contrast and Differential Interference Contrast Imaging Techniques and Applications, SPIE Proceedings 1846, International Society for Optical Engineering, pages 72-79 (1994).

Phase contrast and DIC instrumentation and applications in cell, developmental, and marine biology., Gundlach, H. in Phase Contrast and Differential Interference Contrast Imaging Techniques and Applications, SPIE Proceedings 1846, International Society for Optical Engineering, pages 126-139 (1994).

Principles, practice, and applications of video-enhanced contrast microscopy., Weiss, D. and Maile, W. in Electronic Light Microscopy: Techniques in Modern Biomedical Microscopy, Shotton, D. (ed), Wiley-Liss, New York, pages 105-140 (1993).

Sénarmont compensator., Pluta, M. in Advanced Light Microscopy, Vol. 3, Measuring Techniques, Elsevier, New York, pages 146-197 (1993).

The differential-interference-contrast (DIC) microscope., Slayter, E. and Slayter, H. in Light and Electron Microscopy, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, pages 154-158 (1992).

Differential interference contrast., James, J. and Tanke H. in Biomedical Light Microscopy, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, pages 79-83 (1991).

Differential interference contrast microscopy., Richardson, J. in Handbook for the Light Microscope: A User's Guide, Noyes Publications, Park Ridge, New Jersey, pages 166-181 (1991).

Differential interference contrast., Pluta, M. in Advanced Light Microscopy, Vol. 2, Specialized Methods, Elsevier, New York, pages 146-197 (1989).

Differential interference contrast (DIC)., Lacey, A. in Light Microscopy in Biology: A Practical Approach, IRL Press, New York, pages 40-45 (1989).

Retarders used in microscopy., Pluta, M. in Advanced Light Microscopy, Vol. 1, Principles and Basic Properties, Elsevier, New York, pages 44-51 (1988).

Differential Interference Contrast Microscopy., Abramowitz Mortimer in Contrast Methods in Microscopy: Transmitted Light, Olympus America Inc., Melville, New York, pages 23-27 (1987).

Differential interference, single-sideband, anaxial illumination., Inoué, S. in Video Microscopy, Plenum Press, New York, pages 410-412 (1986).

New observations on cell architecture and dynamics by video-enhanced contrast optical microscopy., Allen, R. in Annual Review of Biophysical Chemistry, Vol. 14 pages 265-290 (1985).

Interference methods., Spencer, M. in Fundamentals of Light Microscopy, Cambridge University Press, New York, pages 54-60 (1982).

Interference contrast., McLaughlin, R. in Special Methods in Light Microscopy, Microscope Publications Ltd., Chicago, Illinois, pages 108-121 (1977).

Nomarski differential interference contrast microscopy. III. Comparison with phase contrast., Lang, W. in Zeiss Information, 76, Carl Zeiss, Oberkochen, Germany, pages 69-76 (1971).

Nomarski differential interference contrast microscopy. IV. Applications., Lang, W. in Zeiss Information, 77/78, Carl Zeiss, Oberkochen, Germany, pages 22-26 (1971).

Nomarski differential interference contrast microscopy. II. Formation of the interference image., Lang, W. in Zeiss Information, 71, Carl Zeiss, Oberkochen, Germany, pages 12-16 (1969).

The Zeiss-Nomarski differential interference equipment for transmitted-light microscopy., Allen, R., David, G., and Nomarski, G. in Zeitschrift für Wissenschaftliche Mikroskopie und Mikroskopische Technike, 69(4), pages 193-221 (1969).

Nomarski differential interference contrast microscopy. I. Fundamentals and experimental designs., Lang, W. in Zeiss Information, 70, Carl Zeiss, Oberkochen, Germany, pages 114-120 (1968).

The Nomarski interference-contrast microscope. An experimental basis for image interpretation., Padawer, J. in Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society, Vol. 88 (3) pages 305-349 (1968).

An introduction to the theory of interference microscopy., Richards, O. in Introduction to Quantitative Cytochemistry, Wied, G. (ed), Academic Press, New York, pages 43-61 (1966).

Interference microscopy in transmitted light., Francon, M. in Progress in Microscopy, Row, Peterson, and Company, New York, pages 94-128 (1961).

Research Reports

Quantitative DIC microscopy using a geometric phase shifter., Cogswell, C., Smith, N., Larkin, K., and Hariharan, P. in Three Dimensional Microscopy: Image Acquisition and Processing IV, SPIE Proceedings 2984, International Society for Optical Engineering, pages 72-81 (1997).

Differential interference contrast microscope with differential detection for optimizing image contrast., Ooki, H., Iwasaki, Y. and Iwasaki, J. in Applied Optics, 35(13), Optical Society of America, pages 2230-2234 (1996).

The Sénarmont compensator: an early application of the geometric phase., Hariharan, P. in Journal of Modern Optics, 40(11), pages 2061-2064 (1993).

Restoring image quality in the polarizing microscope: analysis of the Allen video-enhanced contrast method., Hansen, E., Conchello, J., and Allen, R. in Journal of the Optical Society of America, A, Vol. 5 pages 1836-1847 (1988).

Nomarski differential interference contrast microscopy for surface slope measurements: an examination of techniques., Hartman, J., Gordon, R., and Lessor, D. in Applied Optics, 20(15), Optical Society of America, pages 2665-2669 (1981).

Video-enhanced contrast polarization (AVEC-POL) microscopy: a new method applied to the detection of birefringence in the motile reticulopodial network of Allogromia laticollaris., Allen, R., Travis, J., Allen, N., and Yilmaz, H. in Cell Motility 1, pages 275-289 (1981).

Video-enhanced contrast polarization (AVEC-POL) microscopy: a new method capable of analyzing microtubule-related motility in reticulopodial network of Allogromia laticollaris., Allen, R., Allen, N., and Travis, J. in Cell Motility 1, pages 291-302 (1981).


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