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Electricity and Magnetism:

Batteries

Alkaline-Manganese Batteries - Containing an alkaline electrolyte of potassium hydroxide, these batteries were developed in the early 1960's and still hold a strong position in today's market.

Ammonia Batteries - Intended for use in backup systems, ammonia batteries are comprised of a cylinder-shaped outer case, a gas generator, and a ammonia reservoir in its center.

Lithium/Iron Sulfide Batteries - Operating at a temperature range of 375-500 degrees Celsius, the lithium/iron sulfide battery possesses high power, works well in many environments, and is safe, but requires a thermal management system to maintain a proper temperature.

Lead-Acid Batteries - The typical lead-acid battery, with a large operating temperature range and high level of reliability, is primarily used as the source of electricity for cars.

Lithium Batteries - With high voltage, high specific energy, long shelf life, and an excellent power density, lithium batteries remain the standard for high performance batteries for the past ten years.

Ambient-Temperature Lithium Anode Reserve Batteries - Available in three major types, ambient-temperature lithium anode reserve batteries have undiminished power output even after storage periods over fourteen years.

Metal/Air Batteries - Recently, metal/air batteries have been the recipient of much interest, because of their high energy density, long shelf life, low cost, and environmental soundness.

Nickel-Hydrogen Batteries - Using the technologies of both batteries and fuel cells, the nickel-hydrogen battery is a sealed secondary battery with a long life cycle, high specific energy, and high power density.

Nickel-Zinc Batteries - Characterized by a high specific energy and power capability, nickel-zinc batteries provide energy for electric vehicle applications, such as small vans and passenger cars.

Vented Sintered-Plate Nickel-Cadmium Batteries - A more evolved version of the simple nickel-cadmium battery, the Vented Sintered-Plate Nickel-Cadmium Battery is a secondary battery comprised of twenty individual cells.

Solid-Electrolyte Batteries - Solid-electrolyte batteries contain a solid instead of a liquid electrolyte, providing very high thermal stability, small self-discharge, and a greater tolerance for different environments.

Spin-Dependant Reserve Batteries - With a long shelf life and high performance at low temperatures, spin-dependant reserve batteries are used in many military applications.

Thermal Batteries - A primary reserve battery, thermal batteries combine the advantages of long shelf life, instant activation to a high power density, and usage in many environments with drawbacks such as low energy density, extremely high surface temperature, activated life of less than ten minutes, and one-time usage.

Zinc-Air Batteries - Primarily used in devices such as pagers, hearing aids, and other medical applications, these batteries come in many shapes and sizes with a voltage of 1.15-1.35 volts at 20 degrees Celsius.

Zinc-Carbon Batteries - Zinc-carbon batteries have become the standard for the consumer battery industry of today because of their low cost, long shelf life, and low leakage during storage.

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